Volume 25 December 2008
1. Executive News
The year 2008 has been very exciting for the World Archaeological Congress. We have successfully undertaken a wide range of activities, we have had heated debates on the kinds of issues that should be the subject of heated debates and we have moved forward together as part of a global (but disparate) movement towards a more equitable world in the realms in which we have immediate impact.
The highlight of 2008 was, of course, WAC-6, held in Dublin, Ireland, 29th June to 4th July. This Congress brought together 1,819 archaeologists and Indigenous representatives from over 75 countries to discuss, debate and share information about world cultural heritage issues in a face-to-face forum. Prior to and after WAC-6, representatives from the 14 regional colleges that constitute WAC’s global representation met to discuss global issues and strategies relating to indigenous rights, cultural heritage management and WAC governing policies over the next four year period. These meetings included the election of representatives for the WAC Council, WAC Assembly and WAC Executive.
The extraordinary success of WAC-6 was due to the efforts of a relatively small number of highly committed people. On behalf of WAC members, the Executive would like to reiterate its thanks to those people who put their time, expertise and care into the organisation of WAC-6, and most particularly to Gabriel Cooney, Blaze O’Connor, Helen Lewis, Connor McDermott and Aidan O’Sullivan.
In early December, Gabriel Cooney and Peter Stone, went to Jordan to meet with Talal Akasheh to evaluate the possibility of WAC-7 being held in Jordan in 2012.
Other WAC Meetings
In November, 2008, Wilhelm Londoño and Luís Franco organized a WAC workshop on Archaeology and Local Communities as part of the V National Congress of Archaeology in Colombia. Arising from this workshop was the construction of a document aimed at empowering local communities in their interactions with archaeologists that was presented to the general assembly of Colombian Society of Archaeology. A report on this workshop is included in WAC’s annual report.
The next WAC Inter-Congress will be held at Ramallah in August, 2009, on the topic of Structural Violence. A number of other Inter-Congresses are in the planning stages, including one on Indigenous Peoples and Museums, in Indianapolis, USA and another on Archaeology in Conflict, in Vienna, Austria.
Over the last few months we have been using skype to hold a meeting of the members of Executive members, around the first of the month. This is in addition to the daily email contact we have regarding the day-to-day business of WAC. We are finding that the skype meetings have some difficulties in terms of internet access (not everyone has good access at the same time), but this system is useful for discussing some of the more complex issues that WAC deals with.
Project Duct Tape is being developed by the WAC Internet and Global Communications Taskforce (IGCT) to meet our immediate needs of providing members vastly improved communications, survey capabilities, and more integration between the members only section and the public sections of our website. This involves developing the site to meet WAC’s specific organisational requirements, including the integration of database systems. Once the web site architecture is in place, we will be able to establish WAC Policy Forums, on issues that include the WAC list, engagements with external organisations and archaeologists and war.
The Executive is sending out a call for WAC members to nominate Indigenous people, and people from economically disadvantaged countries for sponsored membership of WAC. Our aim is to increase representation in under-represented regions, as well as our Indigenous membership. In order to be eligible for nomination, the person should have not been a member of WAC in the past. Sponsored membership is a once up benefit for a duration of two years, after which we hope sponsored members will join WAC in the normal way. Nomination forms can be downloaded from the WAC website. Nominations should be sent to the WAC Membership Secretary, Akira Matsuda, firstname.lastname@example.org and to Katie Fagan, email@example.com.
We would like to remind WAC members that it is time to pay our membership fees. These funds cover the cost of the journal, and contribute towards a range of activities, such as the Archaeologists without Borders Program. If you have any doubts about your membership status, please check this with the WAC Membership Secretary, Akira Matsuda, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Finally, the Executive would like to thank all WAC members who have worked so hard on various projects during the year. WAC is an organisation of volunteers and without your help, we would not be able to achieve any of our programs or activities. At this point, we would particularly like to thank Suzanne Nugent for editing this bi-monthly newsletter.
We wish all of you all the best for the holiday season.
Claire Smith, for the Executive
2. New publications by WAC members
Esmee Webb has advised of recent publications on Aboriginal rock art in Western Australian:
Rossi, A.M. and Webb, R.E. 2008 The erosive effect of tourism at an Aboriginal rock art site on the western edge of the arid zone in south-western Australia. Antiquity 82 (available at: http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/rossi/index.html)
Webb, R.E. 2007 Description of grinding patches found on granite bedrock near Cue, central Western Australia, and a discussion of their significance Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 90:115-125.
Webb, R.E. and Rossi, A.M. 2008 How was Mulka’s Cave, an Aboriginal rock art site near Hyden, in south-central Western Australia, used by the people who decorated its walls, when the present entrance was much smaller? Records of the Western Australian Museum 24:307-318.
3. News Items
First Call For Papers
3rd Symposium, Cultural Heritage Knowledge Visualisation, CHKV
A symposium in the 13th International Conference Information Visualisation ,14,
15 – 17 July 2009, Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Barcelona, Spain.
25 February 2009: Submission of papers
10 April 2009: Notification of Peer Review Result
25 April 2009: Submission of camera-ready
Paper Format Guide: (Not more than 6 pages – excess pages at 25 GBP per page.)
Over the last 2 decades we have seen a shift from the physical confines of the ‘houses of knowledge’ – traditional museum, cultural galleries, knowledge institutes – to more online, mobile, accessible
interactive displays of cultural heritage knowledge. From books, physical displays and site-specific places of cultural heritage significance, many more can now access these repositories remotely. As touring 3D installations, interactive online applications, images, text, audio and video, access to cultural heritage knowledge has never been so accessible. What does this mean to those who’s heritage is on display? What protocols are needed to protect the integrity of the knowledge included? And, what new knowledge do we gain through these technological interventions and expositions of cultural heritage? These are only some of the many questions raised in this emerging field of Cultural Heritage Knowledge Visualisation.
The symposium seeks original projects that deal with, but are not limited to,
the following topics:
* Heritage Visualisation
* Culture Visualisation
* Visualising Society Networks
* Visualising Cultural Heritage Knowledge Practices
* Developing Protocols for Cultural Heritage Knowledge Visualisation
* Cultural Heritage Knowledge Semantics
* Narrative Visualisation
* Cultural Heritage Knowledge Ethics
Symposium Cultural Heritage Knowledge Visualisation Liaison
Theodor G Wyeld, Flinders University, Australia
Advisory, Programme and reviewing committee:
Theodor G Wyeld, Flinders University, Australia
Sarah Kenderdine (Museum Victoria, Aust)
Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland (NTNU, Trondheim)
Teng-Wen Chang (NYUST, Taiwan)
Brett Leavy (CyberDreaming, Aust)
Malcolm Pumpa (QUT, Aust)
Marinos Ioannides (HTI, Cyprus)
Giovanni Issini (DFI, Italy)
Special Journal Edition for selected papers: TBA.
Flinders Humanities Research Centre for Cultural Heritage and Cultural
Flinders University, Australia
All enquiries about Cultural Heritage Knowledge Visualisation should be
Digital Media Studies
GPO Box 2100
ph: +06 8 8201 3264
fx: +06 8 8201 3635
Cseh Fruzsina has advised that Archaeolingua is having an END OF YEAR BARGAIN SALE
Up to 50% discount on Archaeolingua titles.
The special prices are valid until the 15th of January 2009
For more details please visit www.archaeolingua.hu
H-1014 Budapest, Úri utca 49. H-1250 Budapest, Pf. 41.
Telefax: (+361) 3758939; e-mail: email@example.com
Crónica de las I Jornadas Internacionales de Prehistoria Ciudad de La Laguna
5, 6 y 7 de noviembre de 2008
(Antiguo Convento de Santo Domingo, La Laguna – Tenerife)
A. José Farrujia de la Rosa
El pasado mes de noviembre de 2008 se celebraron en la ciudad de La Laguna (Tenerife, Islas Canarias) las I Jornadas Internacionales de Prehistoria Ciudad de La Laguna, en el antiguo Convento de Santo Domingo. El evento fue organizado por la Concejalía de Cultura del Excmo. Ayuntamiento de San Cristóbal de La Laguna.
Estas primeras jornadas han nacido con el objetivo de promocionar actividades de tipo cultural relacionadas con el patrimonio histórico y arqueológico canario, faceta ésta que cuenta con un fuerte arraigo en la Ciudad de los Adelantados, declarada Patrimonio de la Humanidad el 2 de diciembre de 1999. Las jornadas, de hecho, nacen con vocación de continuar y asentarse en el panorama científico, convocándose cada dos años.
En esta primera edición el tema central ha girado en torno al estudio de los grabados rupestres de la fachada atlántica, europea y africana, prestándose especial atención al ámbito canario.
Elenco de participantes y temas
Las jornadas, que contaron con la coordinación científica de Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann, incidieron en el estudio de las manifestaciones rupestres a partir de distintas perspectivas, tanto temáticas como geográficas. El ámbito canario fue abordado por Rafael González Antón, Carmen del Arco Aguilar y Pablo Atoche Peña. El ámbito norteafricano fue abordado por Alain Rodrigue, Renate Heckendorf y Agnes Louart; mientras que el ámbito atlántico europeo fue tratado por Muiris O’Sullivan, Michel Le Goffic, Richard Bradley, André Santos y Luis Luis. El caso gallego fue analizado por Antonio de la Peña Santos y Ramón Fábregas, mientras que Primitiva Bueno y Rodrigo Balbín se centraron en el megalitismo de la Prehistoria Reciente del Atlántico ibérico. En el caso andaluz Julián Martínez estudió la pintura rupestre esquemática, desde el Neolítico hasta la Edad del Cobre, y Juan Antonio Gómez-Barrera analizó la historia de la investigación rupestre al aire libre en la meseta castellano-leonesa.
La próxima edición será en el 2010. Para propuestas temáticas y participación, contactar con: José Farrujia (firstname.lastname@example.org).
The next edition will take place in the year 2010. For thematic proposals and participation, please contact with: José Farrujia (email@example.com).
Christine Finn has reported on aspects of Barack Obama’s family history and its links with anthropology. For details please visit:
Dr Ian Russell, School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Ireland has advised that the Archaeologies of Art Podcast Series is launched.
UCD Scholarcast (www.ucd.ie/scholarcast) has released a podcast series featuring highlights from the Sixth World Archaeological Congress’ theme ‘Archaeologies of Art’. Edited by Ian Russell, the series features contributions from Douglass Bailey (San Francisco State University), Blaze O’Connor (University College Dublin), Andrew Cochrane (Cardiff University) and Kevin O’Dwyer (WAC6 Artist-in-Residence).
The series can be downloaded here: http://www.ucd.ie/scholarcast/series2.html
Jacqueline Rutte has advised of the SEPHIS Grants 2009 application deadline – April 15th 2009.
In 2009, fellowships are available at the Post-Doctoral and PhD level. Funding will be provided for travel and research costs, and salary according to local standards. These fellowships extend from a minimum of
three months to a maximum of two years for fellowships at Postdoctoral level and for fellowships at PhD level. In addition, Sephis encourages proposals at the interface of history, theory and development practice.
Research proposals will be selected by the Sephis Steering Committee, which consists of historians from different regions in the world. The applications will be evaluated according to academic quality, feasibility, relevance to local intellectual communities and social movements, and relevance to Sephis themes.
Detailed information about the Sephis grants program and application requirements are available at: http://www.sephis.org and on the WAC website.
National Park Service’s 2009 Archaeological Prospection Workshop
The National Park Service’s 2009 workshop on archaeological prospection techniques entitled: Current Archaeological Prospection Advances for Non-Destructive Investigations in the 21st Century will be held May 18-22, 2009, at the National Park Service’s National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, Natchitoches, Louisiana.
Lodging will be at the Ramada Inn. The field exercises will take place at the Los Adaes StateHistoric Site (a Spanish presidio and capital of the Spanish province of Texas between 1719 and 1772).
Co-sponsors for the workshop include the National Park Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Adaes State Historic Site, Northwestern State University of Louisiana, and the Louisiana Division of Historic Preservation.
This will be the nineteenth year of the workshop dedicated to the use of geophysical, aerial photography, and other remote sensing methods as they apply to the identification, evaluation, conservation, and protection of archaeological resources across this Nation. The workshop will present lectures on the theory of operation, methodology, processing, and interpretation with on-hands use of the equipment in the field.
There is a registration charge of $475.00. Application forms are available on the Midwest Archeological Center’s web page at <http://www.nps.gov/history/mwac/>. For further information, please contact:
Steven L. DeVore, Archeologist, National Park
Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Federal Building, Room 474, 100
Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508-3873: tel: (402) 437-5392,
ext. 141; fax: (402) 437-5098; email: <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Dr Camilla Briault has advised us of the SECOND CALL FOR SESSIONS AND PAPERS
for the Theoretical Archaeology Group (TAG)
May 1-3, 2009
Stanford University, Palo Alto CA
TAG is centered around a plenary session in which a handful of scholars will comment on this year’s theme, “The Future of Things”. Our speakers include Rosemary Joyce (University of Berkeley), Stephen Shennan (University College London), Webb Keane (University of Michigan), and Michael Schiffer (University of Arizona).
Sessions on any theoretical theme are welcome and are not dictated by the plenary session. Session organizers will be responsible for selecting speakers and organizing abstracts. There are several format options, such as sessions, workshops, or roundtable discussions and these can either be half-day (6-10 papers) or full day sessions (12-18 papers). Individuals should contact session organizers for participation in a specific themed session.
The deadline for paper abstracts is February 15th, 2009. The list of sessions is now on the TAG website
Stanford TAG 2009 organizational committee
The Australian Museum is seeking to fill the following position:
Manager, Cultural Collections & Community Engagement, Permanent Full time, Scientific Officer Grade 4/5, Research & Collections
Please visit Australian Museum – Positions Vacant for full job details including selection criteria, inquiries contact and the position description.
The Getty Conservation Institute is pleased to announce two new publications on conservation documentation for cultural heritage places: Guiding Principles and Illustrated Examples.
These two publications are available now to download for free from the GCI’s website (http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications/pdf_publications/recordim.html).
ICCROM is pleased to announce that the training course on Architectural Records,
Inventories and Information Systems for Conservation – ARIS09 will be held in Rome from 2 September – 2 October 2009. This course is offered by ICCROM and the Getty Conservation Institute.
The ARIS09 Course aims to improve architectural conservation practice through the use of methods and tools of recording, documentation, inventories and information management. This architectural conservation course will be based on cases and experience drawing upon the vast wealth of cultural material that the city of Rome and other cases offer for the advanced study of conservation issues.
Applications are invited from conservators, architects, planners, engineers, archaeologists, historians, topographers, photogrammetrists, surveyors, cartographers, restorers, documentalists, and other conservation professionals involved in the field of recording, documentation and inventories through information management systems.
Architectural Records, Inventories and Information Systems for Conservation – ARIS09
International course in architectural conservation, heritage recording, and information management
Dates: 2 September – 2 October 2009
Place: ICCROM, Rome, Italy
ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural
The Getty Conservation Institute
Good conservation decisions are made with knowledge of the significance, history, past interventions, and current conditions of cultural resources. This international course on architectural records, inventories, and information systems for the conservation of cultural heritage will address the needs, methodology, and techniques for acquiring and using this knowledge. The course will draw upon the vast wealth of cultural material in Rome and will
be taught by leading experts in the field. Records, inventories, and information management tools are continuously being developed and must be considered as a fundamental part of the conservation process.
The ARIS09 Course aims to improve architectural conservation practice by:
- Approaching architectural records and information management as tools in conservation for planning, practice, access and dissemination;
- Reviewing the theory of docum
entation and recording and its relation to specific situations;
- Encouraging appropriate methodologies and tools for recording, documentation, inventories and information management;
- Addressing recording practice based on specific case studies;
- Promoting discussion among specialists in these fields; and
- Enabling participants to transmit documentation knowledge and skills to those in their home countries.
The course will feature a range of learning strategies that will draw upon participants´ own professional knowledge while adding new information and skills through readings, discussions, and a number of collaborative practical exercises. The course will include a required preparatory phase prior to arrival at ICCROM. This preparatory phase will allow participants to increase their background knowledge in key topic areas through readings and exercises that they will undertake while in their home countries. The course will be structured around three main blocks of knowledge, through four weeks of study, on specific matters relating to:
- Architectural Records: theory and practice for generating records will include direct, topographic, GPS, photogrammetric, and 3D laser scanning techniques, and archival research (historic, archaeological, structural, condition);
- Inventories: the course will stress the notion of `inventory´ as the core element of information systems to be able to establish links between the various aspects and fields relating to architectural documentation processes;
- Information Systems: planning, practice, access and dissemination of information (computer graphics, multimedia) will be emphasized, in particular principles, design and management of records in data base systems (GIS) and methods to process architectural records and related information.
This international course is designed for a maximum of 18 conservation professionals. The course will be for conservators, architects, planners, engineers, archaeologists, historians, topographers, photogrammetrists, surveyors, cartographers, documentalists, and other conservation professionals involved in the field of recording, documentation and inventories through information management systems.
Preference will be given to candidates working in positions in which they can share, transmit and disseminate the skills and information gained during the course. Preference will also be given to applicants from ICCROM Member States.
Candidates are required to provide evidence of computer knowledge in the use of software for: Internet access, database management, CAD-based graphic tools, and digital image management.
Teaching staff will be composed of recognized heritage conservation professionals having
both practical/theoretical experience and knowledge in training. They will represent a broad
international perspective in their fields of expertise.
The official language of the course will be English. Participants are required to certify proficiency knowledge of the official language.
A certificate of attendance will be awarded to participants who satisfactorily complete the course.
Course fee: 900 EUR (Euro).
Travel, Accommodation and Living Expenses
Participants will be responsible for their round trip travel costs to and from Rome and their accommodation and living expenses during the course. Participants should plan for a minimum allowance of Euros 1500 for living expenses. Candidates are strongly encouraged to seek financial support from sources such as governmental institutions, employers and funding agencies. ICCROM may be able to offer a limited number of scholarships to selected candidates who have been unable to secure funding.
Please fill out the ICCROM application form (obtainable from the ICCROM web site:
www.iccrom.org) and send it together with a full professional Curriculum Vitae (in English) to the contact address below: Email applications are welcome. In the event that it is not possible to provide a scanned version of the necessary photographs and signatures, it will also be necessary to send a paper copy.
ARIS 09 Course
Via di San Michele 13
I-00153, Rome, ITALY
Tel: +39 06 58553 1
Fax: +39 06 58553349
Applications should reach ICCROM by 16 February 2009 to ensure inclusion in our selection process.
British Archaeology Awards
Internet Archaeology and the Archaeology Data Service were winners in the Best Archaeological Innovation category at the biennial British Archaeology Awards ceremony at the British Museum yesterday. For the LEAP Project exemplars, visit: <http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/project/leap/>.
Deliberately blurring the boundary between publication and archive, the LEAP publications were recognised as demonstrating novel ways in which electronic publication can provide broad access to research findings, and make underlying data available in such a way so that readers are enabled to ‘drill down’ seamlessly into online archives to test interpretations and develop their own conclusions.
The LEAP project was also highly commended in the Best Archaeological ICT Project category.
Judith Winters and Prof. Julian Richards attended the ceremony and received the award from Carenza Lewis.
CALL FOR PANEL PROPOSALS
Anthropological and Archaeological Imaginations: past, present and future
University of Bristol, 6th-9th April 2009.
The Association of Social Anthropologists 09 conference will take place at the University of Bristol, 6th-9th April. The aim of this conference is to stimulate a major reconsideration of the complex links which obtain between social anthropology and archaeology. Though social anthropology has had an uneasy relationship with archaeology we believe that the transformations that both disciplines have experienced in recent decades mean that it is time to overcome this reticence, indeed that there are many reasons; intellectual, epistemological, methodological and practical, to do so. All submissions are welcome, whether from the theoretical or ethnographic point of view. Considerations which take into account the experience of four-field anthropology from an international perspective are also very welcome.
We would expect panel proposals to be submitted by 1st December, please. Amongst the special events already decided is the key-note address (Monday 6th April) that will be delivered by Prof. Michael Herzfeld. Invited speakers, with regard to the first plenary that follows, include Prof. ChrisHann, Prof. Tim Ingold, and Prof. Rosemary Joyce. On Day 2, Prof. Ian Hodder will be awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University, preceded by a special lecture: ‘ Archaeology and Anthropology: the state of the field‘ Further events include the ASA Raymond Firth Lecture (Prof. Guha-Thakurta), and the RAI Presidential Address (Prof. Roy Ellen).
The call for panels may be accessed here http://www.theasa.org/conferences/asa09/.
We do not wish to be prescriptive, but the sort of thing that may be of interest would be the exploration of the contrasts and complementarities between the two disciplines historically and today; the study of ruins or the ethnographic exploration of multiple interactions with the past; diffusion and thetransformation of culture; contrasting uses and ways of interpreting material
culture within the two disciplines, and so on. More details on these themes may be found here
http://www.theasa.org/conferences/asa09/theme.htm. Queries may be addressed to conference(a)easa.org.
Dr David Shankland
On behalf of the ASA09 conference committee
Dr Fiona Bowie
Prof. Mark Horton
Dr Joshua Pollard
Dr David Shankland (Chair)
Dr Dimitrios Theodossopoulos
New From Left Coast Press, Inc. WAC members receive a 20% discount on hardcovers and a 30% discount on paperbacks (insert discount code L187 at checkout)
Left Coast Press is pleased to announce that A Fearsome Heritage (in the WAC One World Archaeology series) was highly commended for the British Archaeological Awards Best Scholarly Archaeological Book! The British Archaeological Awards are a showcase for the best in British archaeology and a central event in the archaeological calendar. Established in 1976, they have grown to encompass fourteen Awards, covering every aspect of British archaeology.
A Fearsome Heritage: Diverse Legacies of the Cold War
John Schofield and Wayne Cocroft, eds
Published March 2007, 336 pages, $79.00 Hardcover
From massive nuclear test sites to the more subtle material realities of everyday life, the influence of the Cold War on modern culture has been profound and global. Fearsome Legacies unites innovative work on the interpretation and management of Cold War heritage from fields including archaeology, history, art and architecture, and cultural studies.
From the Handbooks in Archaeology Series:
Handbook of Landscape Archaeology
Edited by Bruno David and Julian Thomas
JUST RELEASED! 800 Pages
In this volume, for the first time, over 80 archaeologists from three continents attempt a comprehensive definition of the ideas and practices of landscape archaeology, covering the theoretical and the practical, the research and conservation, and encasing the term in a global framework. As a basic reference volume for landscape archaeology, this volume will be the benchmark for decades to come.
From the Archaeology and Indigenous Peoples Series:
Kennewick Man: Perspectives on the Ancient One
Edited by Heather Burke, Claire Smith, Dorothy Lippert, Joe Watkins, and Larry Zimmerman
JUST RELEASED! 320 Pages
Kennewick Man, known as the Ancient One to Native Americans, has been the lightning rod for conflict between archaeologists and indigenous peoples in the United States. In this volume, we hear from the many sides of this issue—archaeologists, tribal leaders, and others, as well as views from the international community. The wider implications of the case and its resolution are explored. Comparisons are made to similar cases in other countries and how they have been handled.
From the One World Archaeology Series:
Managing Archaeological Resources: Global Context, National Programs, Local Actions
Edited by Francis P McManamon, Andrew Stout, and Jodi A Barnes
JUST RELEASED! 320 Pages
In a snapshot of 21st century archaeological resource management as a global enterprise, these 25 contributors show the range of activities, issues, and solutions undertaken by contemporary managers of heritage sites around the world. They show how the linkages between global archaeology and funding organizations, national policies, practices, and ideologies, and local populations and their cultural and economic interests foster complexity of the issues at all levels.
Underwater and Maritime Archaeology in Latin America and the Caribbean
Edited by Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton and Pilar Luna Erreguerena
JUST RELEASED! 320 Pages
The waters of Latin America and the Caribbean are rich with archaeological sites, including coastal settlements, defensive forts, freshwater sources, fishing-related activities, navigational aids, anchorages, harbours, ports, shipbuilding sites, shipwrecks and survivor camps. This groundbreaking book documents the emerging research interests of maritime archaeologists in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Archaeologies of Placemaking: Monuments, Memories, and Engagement in Native North America
Edited by Patricia E. Rubertone
JUST RELEASED! 288 Pages
This collection of original essays explores the tensions between prevailing regional and national versions of Indigenous pasts created, reified, and disseminated through monuments, and Indigenous peoples’ memories and experiences of place. The contributors ask critical questions about historic preservation and commemoration methods used by modern societies and their impact on the perception and identity of the people they supposedly remember, who are generally not consulted in the commemoration process. They discuss dichotomies of history and memory, place and displacement, public spectacle and private engagement, and reconciliation and re-appropriation of the heritage of indigenous people shown in these monuments.
WAC titles included in our current 50% off sale (select hardcovers through December 31, 2009)…use CODE L048
Archaeologies of Art: Time, Place, and Identity
Archaeology and Capitalism: From Ethics to Politics
Archaeology to Delight and Instruct: Active Learning in the University Classroom
A Fearsome Heritage: Diverse Legacies of the Cold War
Landscapes of Clearance: Archaeological and Anthropological Perspectives
Living Under the Shadow: Cultural Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions
Rethinking Agriculture: Archaeological and Ethnoarchaeological Perspectives
This is a sampling of WAC-sponsored titles. To order or for more information on additional WAC-sponsored titles, visit our website at:
For more information, contact Caryn Berg at archaeology@LCoastPress.com
Join Left Coast Press online at:
4. Excerpts from other archaeological associations’ newsletters (used with permission)
Salon 202: 8 December 2008
SALON Editor: Christopher Catling
Hadrian’s Wall news
A new survey of the World Heritage Site, Hadrian’s Wall has revealed over 2,700 previously unrecorded landscape features, from prehistoric burial mounds to medieval sheep farms and nineteenth-century lead mines. The survey is part of the English Heritage National Mapping Programme (NMP), which aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of archaeological information available on aerial photographs.
The project to map the landscapes of the Roman frontier covers the entire length of the Wall in a broad band, up to 15 kilometres wide, with Had
rian’s Wall running through the centre of it from the Solway Plain in the west to Newcastle in the east, and including the Cumbrian coastal defences. English Heritage experts identified, interpreted and recorded all the archaeological features visible on 30,500 aerial photographs taken between 1930 and 2006. Features catalogued include an Iron Age hill fort near the village of Fourstones, Northumberland; the deserted medieval village of East Matfen, Tyne & Wear; and a World War II anti-aircraft gun battery near Cleadon, Tyneside. Older photographs show sites that no longer exist, including hundreds of World War II structures that were removed soon after the war ended.
Salon 201: 24 November 2008
Obituary: Ralph Pinder-Wilson
Ralph Pinder-Wilson, Persian scholar, Islamic archaeologist and museum curator, was born on 17 January 1919 and died on 6 October 2008, aged eighty-nine. His family had historical connections with the East India Company, and his father, a naval officer, compiled several pilot’s guides to the West African and South American coasts. He was educated at Westminster School and in 1937 he was elected Westminster Scholar at Christ Church, Oxford, where he read history and was granted a war emergency honours degree.
Salon 200: 10 November 2008
Routes out of Africa: which way and why
Several pieces of research have recently been published addressing the question of human migration out of Africa at the start of our long journey to populate the globe. A team led by the University of Bristol has, for example, challenged the widely held belief that the Nile valley was the most likely route out of sub-Saharan Africa for early modern humans. Finds of the remains of Homo sapiens dating from between 120,000 and 90,000 years ago from caves in modern-day Israel support the Nile River theory, but contradicting this are finds of similar date of human remains and stone tools from Chad, the Sudan and from Libya’s Mediterranean coast.
In a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the Bristol team, with collaborators from the universities of Southampton, Oxford, Hull and Tripoli (Libya), published new evidence for a wet period that began about 120,000 years ago and that brought heavy rainfall from Indian Ocean monsoons to the eastern Sahara. Satellite radar imaging has revealed a system of more than 800 kilometres of channels, some more than 5 kilometres wide, now buried under the sands. These ancient riverbeds may have provided a wet corridor for early human migrations through the Sahara and up to Libya.
Anne Osborne, lead author of the paper, said: ‘Space-born radar images showed fossil river channels crossing the Sahara in Libya, flowing north from the central Saharan watershed all the way to the Mediterranean. Using geochemical analyses, we demonstrate that these channels were active during the last interglacial period. This provides an important watercourse across this otherwise arid region. These corridors rivaled the Nile Valley as potential routes for early modern human migrations to the Mediterranean shores.’
Supporting evidence comes from the isotopic composition of snail shells taken from two sites in the fossil river channels and from the shells of planktonic microfossils in the Mediterranean; both have a distinctly volcanic signature, very different from the underlying geology of the sites where they were found. The only possible source of this volcanic signature is the range of volcanic mountains in the central Sahara that form the watershed for rivers extending north to the Mediterranean Sea.
A separate study in the journal Science addresses the question of what drove early human migration out of Africa. By comparing episodes of migration with climatic variation (based on ice core data from Antarctica), the authors say that it is difficult to see ‘a unique correlation between migration and climate’, such as rainfall variation. Instead, they suggest that the closer match is migration and tool-making innovation. Zenobia Jacobs, lead researcher from the University of Wollongong in Australia, warned, however, that their work does not suggest a specific cause-and-effect relationship. ‘We see bursts of migration during a period with technological advances; it’s like the chicken-and-egg argument – did migration lead to innovation or did innovation stimulate migration?’ Jacobs said.
12,000-year-old female shaman found in a Galilee cave
Archaeologists in Israel have excavated a 12,000-year-old grave where the sex of the interred person is undoubtedly female. She is being described as a ‘shaman’ on the strength of the ‘exceptional’ grave offerings. These include fifty tortoises, a leopard pelvis, the wing tip of a golden eagle, the tail of a cow, two marten skulls and the forearm of a wild boar that was directly aligned with the woman’s left humerus. A human foot belonging to an adult individual who was substantially larger than the interred woman was also found in the grave.
‘This is one of the earliest graves ever excavated in the region and the only shaman grave found in the Middle East’, said Leore Grosman, of the Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University, who heads the excavation at the Natufian cave site of Hilazon Tachtit in the western Galilee. She suggested that the woman was perceived as being in close relationship with the spirits of the animals buried with her. Ten large stones were placed directly on the head, pelvis and arms of the buried individual at the time of burial, perhaps to protect the body from being eaten by wild animals or because ‘the community was trying to keep the shaman and her spirit inside the grave’.
Analysis of the bones show that the shaman was 45 years old and had a spinal disability that would have affected the woman’s gait, causing her to limp or drag her foot and giving her an asymmetrical appearance. The tortoises appear to have been consumed as part of a feast surrounding the interment of the deceased; the limb bones were thrown into the grave along with the shells after consumption.
Japanese researchers find ‘world’s oldest cremation site’ in Syria
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have uncovered the remains of a crematorium thought to be about 8,600 years old, at the Tell el-Kerkh complex in north-west Syria. Cremated bones have been found in the past that date as far back as 26,000 before present (in the Willandra Lakes region of Australia), but the previous oldest cremation pit, in northern Iraq, dates from 7,000 years ago, so the latest find is being claimed as the world’s oldest cremation site with both cremated bones and the pits used for cremation.
Professor Akira Tsuneki, leader of the University of Tsukuba team, said that four pits had been found in total, measuring about 1m in diameter and 50 to 80 centimetres in depth, together with the remains of forty-seven people, of whom twenty had been cremated. He said that about a ton of wood was needed for cremation, and the fact that some people were cremated and others weren’t suggested that only people of a certain status were cremated. ‘The Neolithic age was a time when hierarchies started to appear and the elite emerged’, he said.
Battlefield archaeologists investigate the underground life of First World War soldiers
Tunnels built by the Royal Engineers in the closing stages of the First World War have been surveyed by a team of battlefield archaeologists, led by Dr Tony Pollard, of Glasgow University, in order to understand the experiences of tens of thousands of soldiers who lived in similar subterranean workings along defensive lines that stretched from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier. Dug deep below the water table, some 50ft below the ground surface, the shafts and tunnels had to be pumped free of water and mud before the archaeologists could enter. The concrete floored tunnels were entered by two staircas
es and had recesses for bunk beds for around sixty men.
The tunnels, codenamed Vampire, were built close to the village of Zonnebeke at a time when the Flanders landscape was devoid of natural cover, so that tunnelling was the only way to escape the incessant shelling, the impact stresses from which could reach to 30ft below ground level. During 1917 and 1918, more people lived underground in the Ypres area than live above ground in the town today.
The uncovering of Vampire is the subject of a forthcoming Channel 4 documentary, ‘The Lost WW1 Bunker: a Time Team Special’, to be shown in 2009.
These are not the only wartime tunnels in the news at present: Caen University researchers led by archaeologist Laurent Dujardin have been mapping the underground caves in which 15,000 civilians took shelter from heavy Allied bombing in the build-up to D-Day, on 6 June 1944. Largely undisturbed since, the makeshift bunkers still contain packed suitcases, tins of syrup, decaying maps, children’s magazines and toys, shoes, carbon lights, prayer books and makeshift beds. Some of the so-called carriers were created by linking the 300 or so medieval quarries that lie beneath the city of Caen.
Salon 199: 27 October 2008
Protection for the wreck of HMS London
Barbara Follett, UK Minister for Culture, has designated the remains of HMS London, which sank in the Thames Estuary in 1665, be protected. The remains of the ship were found by divers working for Wessex Archaeology only recently, during a survey to identify potential hazards to the increasingly large ships that use the Thames. Originally built for the Commonwealth navy at Chatham and launched in 1654, HMS London was a three-deck Second Rate warship; she participated in the First Dutch War (1652–4) and was one of the ships in the flotilla that escorted Charles II back from Holland to England at the Restoration. The ship sank after an accidental explosion in 1665; Samuel Pepys recorded in his diary that nearly 300 drowned, but that twenty-four men and women survived because the explosion blew them clear of the sinking ship.
Dating Palaeolithic cave art
Dr Alistair Pike has published a paper on dating Palaeolithic art on the Natural Environment Research Council’s new Planet Earth website. Dr Pike and his team have been trying to date Palaeolithic cave paintings using a technique which measures the ratio of uranium to thorium in the thin layers of calcium carbonate deposited on top of the art. Uranium trapped in this deposit decays to form thorium at a consistent rate. The Bristol team applied the technique to the engravings found in Cresswell Crags, and dated them to at least 12,000 years ago. They have now used the same technique on paintings in the Altamira cave near Santillana del Mar, in northern Spain, and found that the oldest date from 35,000 years ago and the youngest from 14,000 years ago, showing that the paintings were not all created in one campaign, but at intervals over some 20,000 years.
The next step, said Dr Pike, is to try and link specific paintings to the material culture of the people who created the art, which is possible given the greater precision of this dating technique over dating on stylistic grounds. ‘If we can date the art then we can relate that to the artefacts we find in the ground and start to link the symbolic thoughts of these individuals to where, when and how they were living’, he said.
Fitting the pieces back together
Griphos (Greek for ‘puzzle’) is the name of a new software program developed by Princeton computer scientists to automate the reconstruction of frescos, mosaic or pots from excavated fragments. The pieces are scanned in colour in three dimensions, and then compared to find the best match based on a range of criteria, including colour, pattern, texture and flaws. The program has been tested in the reconstruction of Late Bronze Age wall paintings excavated from Akrotiri, on Santorini. A video demonstration of the work can be seen on the Princeton University website.
Evidence that Neanderthals ate fish
Professor Chris Stringer, palaeontologist at the Natural History Museum, has published evidence that Neanderthals, like modern humans, foraged in coastal habitats to find seafoods such as shellfish and vulnerable seals. The evidence comes from the remains of food excavated from two coastal caves on the eastern side of Gibraltar – Gorham’s Cave and Vanguard Cave – which are being excavated by the Gibraltar Caves Project, a collaboration between London’s Natural History Museum, the Gibraltar Museum and the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid.
As well as the butchered bones of ibex, red deer, wild boar, bear and rabbit, the excavators found the remains of monk seal, dolphins, fish such as sea bream and mussel shells. ‘The seal bones we found have clear cut marks and peeling, from Neanderthals bending and ripping them from the body to remove meat and marrow. The mussel shells had been warmed on a fire to open them,’ said Professor Stringer.
The Gibraltar evidence adds to the puzzle of why Neanderthals became extinct by demonstrating that those living on the shores of the Mediterranean at least were adaptable and had access to a rich and varied diet not unlike that of modern humans living in similar habitats.
(b) ICOMOS Australia
Australia ICOMOS E-Mail News No. 368
AFRICA 2009 – Special Seminar: Challenges of heritage and poverty alleviation
Applications are now open for the AFRICA 2009 special seminar on ‘Challenges of heritage and poverty alleviation, to be held in São Tomé, São Tomé and Principe from 2 – 6 March 2009.
Application deadline: 15 January 2009
Australia ICOMOS E-Mail News No. 367
Seeking Intern Applicants and Host Organizations in the United States and Abroad…
…for the 2009 US/ICOMOS International exchange Program
Through grants from private foundations, US/ICOMOS expects to offer between 10 and 15 internships overseas in 2009 for U.S. preservationists who are at the early stages of their careers. Through contributions from US host organizations, we also expect to offer between 10 and 15 internships in the United States for non-U.S. citizens.
Seeking intern applicants
US/ICOMOS internships are geared toward individuals who are in their last year of a relevant graduate program or have been working for 1-3 years in a professional capacity. Successful applicants are those who demonstrate an interest in pursuing preservation work in an international capacity, NOT simply those who need an internship to fulfill a program requirement. The program is very competitive in that only 1 in 5 applicants are awarded internships in any given year. Applications are due January 30, 2009. Please read all information carefully before preparing and submitting an application. Interns must apply to the program as a whole, and not for a specific internship location. Please review the reports on the past three seasons to view the types of internships usually sponsored under this program.
To view application instructions for the 2009 US/ICOMOS International Exchange Program visit
Seeking host organizations overseas
US/ICOMOS is seeking additional host organizations overseas for the 2009 International Exchange Program. We raise a limited amount of funds through grants from foundations and donations from private individuals to send about 10 to 12 young American preservationists overseas to work with a variety of preservation organizations in other countries. To provide more opportunities, host organizations are needed that can provide housing and a full or partial stipend for the intern (for food and basic living costs).
Seeking host organizations in the United States
US/ICOMOS is also seeking additional host organizations for the 2009 International Exchange Program. U.S. host organizations contribute funds to US/ICOMOS to cover recruitment and processing of intern applications, orientation in Washington for the interns, and distribution of stipends over the course of the internships. US/ICOMOS supplements the host contributions with grants and donations from private individuals.
Private, commercial firms are eligible for serving as host organizations.
For more information on the 2009 US/ICOMOS International Intern Program visit http://www.icomos.org/usicomos, or go directly
For general enquiries please contact:
Donald G. Jones, PhD
Director of Programs
401 F Street, NW, Suite 331
Washington, DC 20001
2010 Watch nominations are now being accepted – deadline for nominations is 15 March 2009
The World Monuments Watch calls international attention to cultural heritage around the world that is threatened by the forces of nature and society. From archaeological sites to iconic architecture, cultural landscapes to historic city centres, the Watch identifies places of significance in need of timely action.
Every two years, WMF accepts new nominations to the Watch, from which 100 are selected for listing. Watch listing provides an opportunity for sites and their nominators to raise public awareness, foster local participation, advance innovation and collaboration, and demonstrate effective solutions. The Watch nomination process also serves as a vehicle for requesting World Monuments Fund (WMF) assistance for select projects. More than 500 sites from over 110 countries have benefited from the seven cycles of the Watch; nearly half of these have received WMF grants, totalling $50 million.
Additional information about the 2010 World Monuments Watch and downloadable PDFs of the Guidelines and Nomination Forms are available at.
Adobe Reader version 9.0 is required for the PDFs and may be downloaded for free at http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html.
Questions or concerns about the nomination or electronic submission process should be directed to email@example.com.
Watch and Field Programs Administrator
Research degrees in cultural heritage at Curtin University
Would you like to improve your cultural heritage qualifications while obtaining a high level research degree at the same time?
As part of its commitment to improving museum and heritage education in Australia, Cultural Heritage at Curtin University of Technology in Perth now proposes to focus exclusively on research degrees while still encouraging coursework and classroom contact.
The Curtin course is renowned for fostering contact between students and the professional field; this will be maintained through practicum and project work.
In 2009 Curtin will offer two Master of Philosophy courses in heritage. The first, M. Phil (Creative Arts), gives students the opportunity to develop a major project in such fields as exhibition development, museum research , oral history, heritage interpretation and heritage management. Students will focus their research on a project with tangible outcomes and accompany their work with a philosophical, interpretive essay. They will also undertake coursework with their fellow students.
The second degree, M Phil (Cultural Heritage) is the classic research degree requiring a thesis, but students may also use one third of their degree time in coursework.
Although Honours is the usual pre-requisite for these degrees, prospective students with high grades in pass degrees will be accepted.
For further information please contact Dr Jennifer Harris at Curtin University of Technology: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Australia ICOMOS E-Mail News No. 366
KEEPING THE PAST PUBLIC: the Documentation and Conservation of Modern Places – registration open
KEEPING THE PAST PUBLIC: the Documentation and Conservation of Modern Places
4 – 6 February 2009
University of Melbourne
Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning
FREE PUBLIC LECTURES:
Jolyon Leslie (Aga Khan Cultural Trust, Afghanistan)
“Cultural Space in Contemporary Afghanistan”
WED 4 Feb @ 6.00 (Sisalkraft Theatre, Arch Building)
John Allen (Avanti Architects,UK)
“Private Privilege – Public Duty: Examples of English experience in Modern Conservation”
THURS 5 Feb @ 6.00 (Sisalkraft Theatre, Arch Building)
SYMPOSIUM INTERNATIONAL PLENARY SPEAKERS INCLUDE:
Hilde Heynen (K U Leuven)
“Designing welfare. The reconfiguration of public space in Flanders (1958-1978)”
Miles Glendinning (Royal College of Art,Edinburgh)
“The Forgotten Revolution? Northern Ireland’s Heritage of Modern Reconstruction”
Elain Harwood (English Heritage)
“Protecting Post-War Heritage in England”
Laretna Adishakti ((Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia)
“The conservation management of Borobudur and surrounding townscapes”
*** And a number of expert architects, conservationists and historians from around Australia and NZ who will present papers and panel debates.
This symposium will examine the myriad of challenges surrounding the documentation and conservation of twentieth century sites, including individual buildings, townscapes and communities. Emphasis will b
e focused on the architectural legacy of Modernism, in all its international guises, and on public sites. These discussions on Modern sites will be complemented by other presentations on the management of townscapes in contexts that are much older (for instance Afghanistan and Indonesia), but that face fundamental challenges presented by twentieth century effects of war and globalization.
The symposium public lectures, panels and plenary presentations will chart the processes of conservation through the themes of “Documentation”, “Heritage Policy and Implementation” and “Conservation and Re-Use”. Individual Invited speakers span a wide breadth of international experience from academic historians and conservation architects, to heritage practitioners and policy-makers.
The symposium is being hosted by the Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, and the School of Historical Studies at the University of Melbourne. The event is being generously sponsored and supported by: the Australian Research Council, the University of Melbourne, the Australian Academy of Humanities; Docomomo Australia, the Heritage Council of Victoria, and the Ian Potter Foundation. The symposium will be convened by Dr Hannah Lewi, Prof Philip Goad, Prof Kate Darian-Smith, Dr David Nichols and Assoc Prof Julie Willis.
See www.abp.unimelb.edu.au/past-public for full details of the program and registration form.
Contact symposium convener Dr Hannah Lewi, email@example.com for other details.
GCI Bulletin – available online
To read the December issue of the GCI bulletin, visit
The Talk about Town: Urban Lives and Oral Sources in 20th Century Australia –
call for papers
27-28 August 2009, at the State Library of Victoria and Melbourne Museum
The Talk about Town: Urban Lives and Oral Sources in Twentieth Century Australia invites researchers and professionals working on life in Australian cities since 1900 to come together and reflect on their projects. It hopes to encourage participants to think about the significance of the urban context, whether or not it is the primary focus of their research. In particular, researchers working with personal sources in fields such as oral history, life history and immigration, are encouraged to look at the way that urban settings have shaped the stories they have been told.
Postgraduate students and professionals working with history are particularly encouraged to participate.
The Talk about Town is delighted to welcome distinguished oral and urban historian Alessandro Portelli, Professor of American literature at the University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, as keynote speaker. Professor Portelli is the author of a number of influential studies in oral history and popular memory including The Order Has Already Been Carried Out: History, Memory and Meaning of a Nazi Massacre in Rome (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) and The Death of Luigi Trastulli: Form and Meaning in Oral History (State University of New York Press, 1991). From 2002 to 2008, he served as advisor to the mayor of Rome for the preservation and promotion of the city’s historical memory, and is currently co-manager of Rome’s House of History and Memory.
The Talk about Town offers a rich and stimulating conference program, to be hosted by the State Library of Victoria and Museum Victoria, on 27-28 August 2009. Day one of the conference will feature a series of parallel sessions and a keynote address by Professor Portelli. Day two of the conference will feature further parallel sessions, a number of workshops led by experts in urban and oral history, and additional events including walking tours of inner Melbourne and a guided tour of ‘The Melbourne Story’ at Melbourne Museum.
Following the conference, participants are encouraged to submit articles based on their conference presentations for consideration for publication in a special issue of a refereed journal.
Persons wishing to present papers at the conference should send 200 word abstracts (for a 20 minute presentation), to Kerrie Alexander at firstname.lastname@example.org on or before 31 December 2008.
For inquiries about the conference, or proposals for panels, please contact the organising committee via email@example.com.
Australia ICOMOS E-Mail News No. 365
Australia ICOMOS New Membership Applications
Membership of Australia ICOMOS brings discounts at ICOMOS functions and conferences and on ICOMOS publications. The E-mail News provides a weekly bulletin board of information and events in Australia and overseas, including state based events, conferences and site visits, as well as information on heritage publications, funding and grant opportunities, course details and job offers. Members also receive a number of issues annually of the Australia ICOMOS refereed journal Historic Environment. Applications for members to join the Australia ICOMOS Executive Committee (EC) are encouraged from all states and territories. For Young Professional and full Members, the International ICOMOS card gives free or reduced rate entry to many historic and cultural sites.
Australia ICOMOS welcomes new members and would like to encourage students and young cultural heritage graduates to apply for membership. There are various membership categories and applications can be to be made to the Secretariat:
Those who are interested in ICOMOS but who do not meet the requirements for full membership, or else do not have heritage conservation as their core focus, could apply to become Associates of ICOMOS.
Those at the beginning of a career in architecture, archaeology, planning or history with 3 years experience and who are under 30 years of age may be eligible for Young Professional membership at reduced rates.
Heritage professionals, with at least 3 years of heritage experience may be eligible for full Membership.
The membership forms and details are available on the web page www.icomos.org/australia and from Georgia Meros at the Secretariat, phone 03 9251 7131 or firstname.lastname@example.org. All applications are received at the Secretariat and referred to the Executive Committee (EC) for consideration. Completed applications must be received 4-6 weeks before the Executive Committee meeting date to allow consideration. If received after this, they are held over to the next meeting.
Please note: to be considered at the February 2009 Executive Committee meeting, applications would need to be in to the Secretariat by 15 JANUARY 2009.
Please send in applications to the Australia ICOMOS Secretariat or if further information is required contact the Membership Secretary, Helen Wilson at email@example.com.
Australia ICOMOS E-Mail News No. 363
2009 UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards for Culture Heritage Conservation – call for entries
Entries are now being accepted for the 2009 UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards for Culture Heritage Conservation. The awards programme, in its tenth year, recognizes the achievement of individuals and organizations within the private sector, and public-private initiatives, in successfully restoring structures of heritage value in the Asia-Pacific region. The deadline for receipt of materials is 31 March 2009.
For further information, visit http://www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id=8111.
New Director General of ICOM
Julien Anfruns has been appointed as the new Director General of the International Council of Museums (ICOM).
CollAsia 2010 – Conservation and context: collections and their heritage sites
A two-week national training activity on ‘Conservation and context: Collections and their heritage sites’ is being launched in Siem Reap, Kingdom of Cambodia.
New PDF: Risk Preparedness: A Management Manual for World Cultural Heritage
The second in the series of management guidelines and manuals for World Cultural Heritage, this volume addresses the issue of risk preparedness in both general and specific terms.
OBITUARY – Father Michele Piccirillo
Father Michele Piccirillo played a major role in the excavation of Christian religious sites in Palestine and Jordan, especially at Mount Nebo in Madaba, where he was one of the founders of the Mosaic School. http://www.iccrom.org/eng/news_en/2008_en/various_en/10_29obitPiccirillo_en.shtml
Australia ICOMOS E-Mail News No. 362
5th Annual Ename International Colloquium – call for papers
The Province of East-Flanders, the Flanders Marine Institute, the Flemish Heritage Institute,
Stony Brook University, NY, and the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation, are pleased to announce a first call for papers for the:
5th Annual Ename International Colloquium
18 – 20 March 2009 in Ghent and Ostend, Belgium
CLIMATES OF HERITAGE CONSERVATION:
Responding to the Challenge of Global Climate Change through Public Engagement and Social Innovation
Since 2005, UNESCO has been challenging cultural heritage organizations to take account of global climate change in their conservation mission as well as their methods. In particular, UNESCO has encouraged such organizations to work more closely with ecological organizations and also to assume a greater level of activism toward the public.
These recommendations dovetail with the accepted international approach to involve the community in a sustainable heritage conservation and presentation policy as they are formulated in guidelines and charters such as the Faro Convention of the Council of Europe or the ICOMOS Ename Charter.
What is not clear however, is how the issue of Global Climate Change affects the wider contexts and settings that are part of a long-term heritage conservation program or the public awareness and engagement regarding heritage. Some organizations may find their level of effectiveness reduced as they attempt to take on tasks that lie beyond their expertise. Others will find new forms of public engagement and garner greater public support for their work.
While the impacts of Global Climate Change are several, this three-day colloquium will focus on those of immediate and obvious significance to the Low Countries, namely rising sea levels and increased river flooding. Papers presented will provide comparative experiences from diverse nations in all the world’s regions that are subject to these threats as they impact cultural heritage. It is understood that cultural heritage here refers not simply to monumental sites or cultural landscapes, but also to the intangible heritage that is so much at risk. Among the questions to be asked are the following:
- What have been the experiences with cultural sites or landscapes in diverse settings with rising sea levels and/or river flooding?
- What have been the responses of cultural heritage organizations and how have they coordinated with other organizations active in the defence or relief effort?
- Can heritage conservation and interpretation programmes learn from ecological approaches and vice versa or is there a danger that cultural heritage preservation will become subsumed by the attention given to ecological conservation?
- In what way does Global Climate Change alter heritage conservation programmes or how does it affect the interpretation and presentation of cultural heritage sites?
- How can cultural heritage professionals respond pro-actively to the global threat of climate change?
- What does it mean for heritage organizations to engage in broader social advocacy in the light of Global Climate Change?
- Is Global Climate Change only a threat for heritage conservation policies or does it also provide new opportunities?
We are therefore seeking innovative contributions from heritage administrators, archaeologists, historians, cultural economists, educators, cultural policy specialists and practitioners under the following four topics:
1. Actual Site Impacts and Predictions due to Global Climate Change
2. Attitudes and Responses from heritage organizations towards Global Climate Change
3. Climate Change, Cultural Tourism, and Development
4. Widening Public Engagement and Forging Organizational Alliances
Abstracts for poster presentations, short papers (10 min.) and research papers (20 min.) on these themes will be accepted until 15 January 2009. They should be a maximum of 300 words, in English, sent either by fax to +32-55-303-519 or by email to Willem Derde at firstname.lastname@example.org . Authors should include full contact information (name, institutional affiliation, mailing address, phone, fax and e-mail address).
Notification of acceptance will be sent by 1 February 2009.
Australia ICOMOS E-Mail News No. 361
Global Rock Art – International Congress of Rock Art, June/July 2009
Global Rock Art will take place from 29 June – 3 July 2009 at Serra da Capivara National Park, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil.
At Global Rock Art scientists, students and people interested in the research, conservation and promotion of rock manifestations will meet and present their papers and information
from all continents thus showing that rock art is a worldwide cultural phenomenon.
The congress will try to demonstrate that globalization is not a present-day occurrence. It started when man left his home in Africa and spread over all the continents. The congress is international and will show that Homo sapiens genetically carries a pattern of answers to problems created by the environment and by his psyche. For this reason the congress is called Global RockArt.
For further information, visit http://www.globalrockart2009.ab-arterupestre.org.br/.
UNESCO 2001 Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage enters into force 2 January 2009
Twenty States have now ratified the Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, which therefore will enter into force on 2 January 2009, three months after the deposit of the 20th instrument of acceptance.
“This is a very important step in the history of the safeguarding of cultural heritage,” declared Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO. “This represents an essential addition to UNESCO’s standard-setting apparatus. From now on, it will be possible to offer legal protection to the historical memory that is in underwater cultural heritage, thus curtailing the growing illicit trade by looters.”
The Convention, adopted in 2001 by UNESCO’s General Conference, aims to ensure more effective safeguarding of submerged shipwrecks and ruins. The international treaty represents the international community’s response to the increased looting and destruction of underwater cultural heritage, which is becoming ever more accessible to treasure hunters.
The 2001 convention is based on four main principles:
- The obligation to preserve underwater cultural heritage;
- In situ preservation, i.e. under water, as a preferred option;
- No commercial exploitation of this heritage; and
- cooperation among States to protect this precious legacy, to promote training in underwater archaeology, and to raise public awareness of the importance of sunken cultural property.
The Convention does not arbitrate ownership claims nor prejudice the jurisdiction or sovereignty of States. The Convention’s Annex establishes rules for activities directed at underwater sites; these rules are widely recognized by archaeologists.
The Director-General of UNESCO will convene a meeting of States Parties to the Convention within one year of its entry into force and thereafter at least once every two years. The meeting of States Parties will establish its functions and responsibilities.
It may in addition establish a Scientific and Technical Advisory Body composed of experts who will make recommendations on scientific and technical issues.
(c) Prehistory Society of Zimbabwe
Prehistory Society of Zimbabwe
Excavations of the Oranjemund Shipwreck, Oranjemund, Namibia
Chief Curator – Archaeology, National Museum of Namibia, P.O. Box 1203, Windhoek, Namibia
NAMDEB the diamond mining company that is a joint venture between the Namibian government and De Beers have developed a strategy to mine diamonds from marine terrace gravels on the shore. To do this the company pushes the gravels towards the sea to create what are called “pocket beaches” which are then mined for diamonds. Huge walls of sand are constructed and these are maintained on a 24-hour basis during the period in which mining is being carried out. The area in which the shipwreck was found was protected by a 30 m high earthen “sea wall.” The area, which is 12 km north of Oranjemund, a small mining town on the banks of the Orange River, on the border with South Africa, was just a strip of excavated ocean bed, 7m below sea level and 200m out from the natural beach. Once the mining is completed the sea reclaims these areas.
In March 2008 a bulldozer driver excavating the area noticed some “unusual objects”, including copper ingots and elephant tusks that are not common in his line of work and called in the geologists. The geologists in turn contacted an archaeologist to come and examine the artefacts. The archaeologist confirmed that the site was a shipwreck. Excavations were immediately recommended as the company wanted to quickly mine the area.
There was thus no previous plan to carry out the work. Tonnes of objects were removed without even establishing their positions. Most did not have records of where they came from. At the end of this first excavation there was no map of the site and none of the objects had a known provenance. The only documentation that had been carried out was photography. However, a shipwreck is a just one single event and stratigraphy may not be crucial in this case. In most shipwrecks, the wreck and the artefacts are moved around by the action of the sea and would not be in their original locations. The site was reburied after its discovery when the government realized the importance of the wreck. By then six tonnes of copper ingots, 50 elephant tusks 2500 gold coins (weighing 23 kg), several hundred silver coins, eight cannons and several cannon balls had been found. These items dated the ship to the mid 16th century AD. Another important find from the ship was navigational equipment, including three astrolabes (an early form of sextant) that are very rare for shipwrecks of the same period. Very few of these instruments still exist intact and not many museums have more than one, making this shipwreck one of the most important in navigation history.
At the Namibian government’s request to assist in the re-excavation of the shipwreck at the end of August 2008, Ashton Sinamai joined a multinational team from Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Portugal and Spain, including a maritime archaeologist from the Southern African Institute for Maritime Archaeology (SAIMA) based in Cape Town.
Excavation began by removal of the concretions that covered much of the shipwreck. The excavation of these concretions had to be done by jack-hammers and fortunately the skill of NAMDEB staff with jack-hammers saved many of the artefacts. More gold and silver coins, copper and tin ingots, and cutlery used on the ship were found. The Iberian coins were minted between 1476-1516 during reign of Ferdinand V and Isabella and John III of Portugal There were also two Arab coins in copper and gold, possibly belonging to a crew member. Arabs had already been expelled from Spain by that time and these coins were no longer being used in the Iberian Peninsula.
For Sinamai, the most interesting finds were those items that could tell more about the lives of the sailors on the ship. Maritime archaeology sometimes tends to concentrate on the ship and its contents while terrestrial archaeologists tend to look for evidence of people as well. Several personal objects like rosaries, wallets, and pendants were found and, once studied, will inform about the lives of the sailors. No human bones were found. The sailors may have survived the shipwreck and swum to shore as the coastline is only 200 m from where the ship hit bedrock on the sea floor.
With more research, the team aim to provide more information on the ship. The huge amount of cargo means that this ship would have a record in Portugal. Such records detail when the ship was constructed and where it was going. As the source of ivory can be traced through isotope analysis, the ivory may also show the ship’s movement on the African coast. The copper ingots have a trident seal that has been identified as belonging to the Fugger family. The Fugger
s were rich merchants from Ausburg, Germany who bought silver and copper mines in Hungary, Tyrol and Spain. Later they became bankers to the ruling elite of Europe, including the popes and kings. In sponsoring exploration of sea routes to the east, the family may have sold copper ingots to the Portuguese king for trade with the Far East.
At the conclusion of the research, the artefacts will be housed in the proposed Maritime Museum of Namibia. This shipwreck is one of the most important to be found in Africa, south of the Sahara, and will illuminate the history of world trade, especially, the opening of Africa to world trade, the lives of the sailors and the technology of shipbuilding.
Solomon’s real mine?
3,000 years on, archaeologists uncover fabled site in desert
Summarised from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/
Archaeologists believe they have uncovered one of the lost mines of King Solomon. The vast copper mine lies in an arid valley in modern-day Jordan and was created in the 10th century BC – around the time Solomon is believed to have ruled over the ancient Hebrews. The mines are enormous and would have generated a huge income for the king, who is famed for bringing extraordinary wealth and stability to the newly united kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The announcement has reopened the debate about how much of the Old Testament is myth and how much is history. According to the Bible, Solomon was the third king of Israel. The son of King David, he was renowned for his wisdom, the size of his harem and the splendour of his kingdom. During his reign, he is said to have accumulated a huge fortune from mining and trading, some of which was spent on building the grand temple and opulent palace in Jerusalem.
Archaeologists and treasure-hunters have searched for the mines for more than a century since the best-selling Victorian novel, King Solomon’s Mines by H Rider Haggard, claimed they could hold a treasure of gold and diamonds. But now, it seems the real version could have been closer to home, supplying the king with copper.
The ancient mine was found in a desolate region south of the Dead Sea in southern Jordan in an area called Khirbat en-Nahas, which means ‘ruins of copper’ in Arabic. The region was known in the Old Testament as the Kingdom of Edom. By Solomon’s time, it had become a vassal state, paying tribute to Jerusalem. Digs at the site in the 1970s and 1980s suggested metalworking began there in the 7th century, long after the time of Solomon. However, Dr Thomas Levy, of the University of California, San Diego, and Mohammed Najjar, of Jordan’s Friends of Archaeology, have dated the site to the 10th century BC. Dr Levy said: “We have evidence that complex societies were indeed active in the 10th and 9th centuries BC and that brings us back to the debate about the historicity of the Bible narratives related to this period. We can’t believe everything ancient writings tell us. But this research represents a confluence between the archaeological and scientific data and the Bible”.
The ancient site contains around 100 buildings, including a fortress, in the middle of 24 acres of land covered in black slag. The mine works are covered with trails and holes, and are big enough to be seen on Google Earth’s satellite images. The team also found ancient Egyptian artefacts at the site, including a scarab and amulet from the 10th century BC. When Solomon died, his kingdom was thrown into chaos and the Pharaoh Sheshonq is believed to have attempted to crush economic activity.
Next Issue: February 2009