The Eighth World Archaeological Congress (WAC-8) was held between 28 August and 2 September 2016 in Kyoto, with more than 1,600 colleagues coming from 83 countries. The functions of a World Archaeological Congress international conference include various decision-makings as a world archaeological organisation as well as the facilitation of academic communications for the furtherance of the causes, principles and objectives of WAC. Any change to the WAC Statutes (available at: http://worldarch.org/statutes/) have to be proposed, discussed and approved by the Assembly, comprising of the national representatives1) and the council members. The Assembly also elects new Executive officers2) and vote to decide the next conference venue3). A WAC international conference also serves a very important function for its participants, regardless of whether one is a member of WAC or not: the participants get a chance to have their say not only for the future of WAC but also for the future of archaeologies through WAC’s policy implementation and activities, a function that is fulfilled by the final plenary. ‘Resolutions’ are submitted, discussed and adopted or rejected. Resolutions cover truly wide-range of concerns and ideals, many of which emerge out of academic sessions, and they are commonly compiled by the organisers and participants of respective sessions. Once adopted by the plenary, they are discussed by the new Council for their re-wording when necessary and for finalization before their publication as WAC international conference resolutions. Although one of the largest organisations in the world of archaeology with a built-in democratic decision making mechanism, WAC retains the character of ‘congress’; open to everybody who shares concerns about the future of archaeologies and aspirations for the furtherance of basic human rights across the world through practicing archaeologies, and every participant has right to have their say about its policies and activities. WAC international conference resolutions, in that sense, reflect the voices of all the archaeologists, heritage specialists, indigenous colleagues and those who care about the pasts who show their willingness to support WAC and its causes, regardless being a member or not. The adopted resolutions do not have any statutory power. However, as the voices of those who concern the future of archaeologies and WAC, the Council is obliged to strive to realise what the adopted resolutions ask WAC to undertake.
Do please read the WAC-8 resolutions with those implications in mind, and read them as the voices of those who came to WAC-8 with the intentions of making positive interventions to the future direction of archaeologies and of our world through practicing archaeologies.
(The President of the World Archaeological Congress)
- The national representatives for a WAC international conference are elected on the first day of the conference with their term of office only during the conference.
- President: Koji Mizoguchi (Japan), Vice-President: Anne Pyburn (United States; serving until September 2017), Vice-President elect: Ines Domingo (Spain; starting to serve in September 2017), Secretary: Akira Matsuda (Japan; serving until September 2017), Secretary elect: Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu (South Africa; starting to serve in September 2017), Treasurer: Dru McGill (United States; serving until September 2017), Treasurer elect: Katsuyuki Okamura (Japan; starting to serve in September 2017)
- Decided to be Prague, Czech Republic
Reworded Resolution 1
Proposed at WAC-8 by Kate Ellenberger and Doug Rocks-Macqueen
Finalised by Gloria Kendi Borona
We propose that for all WAC meetings forward, there should be an official social media policy. This would ideally encourage presenters to be clear about whether they are comfortable with information from their presentations being shared, and/or a suggested procedure for participants to ask presenters about whether they can post on social media about the presentation. Having a shared document outlining these topics would help those attending to receive feedback from scholars who could not attend in person but are following along online, while also respecting the boundaries of those who are discussing sensitive topics, such as human remains, indigenous cultural knowledge, or anything deemed not appropriate for distribution by the presenter or their collaborators.
Reworded Resolution 2
Proposed at WAC-8 by Brenna Hassett
Reworded by Anne Pyburn
We recognise that the creation, dissemination, and curation of digital bioarchaeological data (DBD) requires special consideration where it represents models of virtual human remains. In order to meet ethical standards for the treatment and display of human remains, the following conditions must be met when creating, disseminating, and curating DBD: 1) Authorship must be established by identifying all stakeholders, e.g. the curating authority, data creator, involved communities; 2) DBD should be presented in context, e.g. with metadata on archaeological context and author attribution; and 3) access and use conditions must be set on a case-by-case basis according to the needs of all stakeholders. As DBD has the potential to be of huge benefit in education, outreach, and collections preservation, we advocate a tiered hierarchy of online Open Access under Creative Commons licensing which respects the special nature of DBD and stakeholder needs including, in decreasing order of access restriction: a) Curating Authority Regulated Access, where the curator decides access; b) Registered User Regulated Access, where access is granted to known individuals; c) Public View Only Access; and d) fully Open Access.
Brenna Hassett, Carolyn Rando, Emmy Bocaege, Priscilla Ulguim, Andrew Wilson, Suzy White, Cara Hirst, Marta Alfonso-Durruty and Siân Smith
Proposed at WAC-8 by Zacharys Anger Gundu
Finalised by Anna Karlström
Resolution on the incessant Violence by Boko Haram, Fulani Militants and other Armed Groups in Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad
World Archaeology Congress notes with concern the incessant climate of violence in parts of Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad occasioned by Boko Haram, Fulani militants and other armed groups. The violence continues to destroy and threaten people’s lives. It also continues to destroy and threaten the heritage resources, archaeological sites and cultural landscapes of these countries. One of the affected sites is Sukur, a World Heritage site in the Mandara mountains on Nigeria’s border with the Cameroon Republic. The violence has made archaeological fieldwork difficult and dangerous in many parts of these countries. Therefore, we suggest that:
In accordance with WAC’s concern for the damage and destruction of cultural property caused by armed conflict, expressed in the WAC Dead Sea Accord, which was approved in 2014, WAC calls upon actors in the violence to refrain from destroying heritage resources, archaeological sites and cultural landscapes.
WAC urges the Governments of Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad to take urgent steps to end the violence in their respective countries and review national legislation to proactively protect cultural property and archaeological sites.
WAC urges the Governments of Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad to include the reconstruction and restoration of sites and affected cultural landscapes as part of efforts to rebuild areas and states ravaged by the violence.
WAC offers its expertise in reconstruction and restoration of theses sites, and in future archaeological actions.
WAC offers active support to groups that are resisting violence and destruction of heritage resources, archaeological sites and cultural landscapes.
Zacharys Anger Gundu, Jonathan Olu Aleru
Reworded Resolution 4
Proposed at WAC-8 by Kaushik Gangopadhyaya and V. Selvakumar
Finalised by Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu
We propose that a WAC standing committee, to be known as the “Committee on the Employment and Archaeology for the Future”, be established. The objective of the WAC “Committee on Employment and Archaeology for the Future” shall be to focus on the future of archaeological practice by assisting, empowering and supporting the younger generation (students and early career researchers) in the area of training and alerting them to employment opportunities, as the future of archaeology lies with them.
Reworded Resolution 5
Proposed at WAC-8 by Laura Dennis
Reworded by Dru McGill
As archaeological and heritage practice are becoming increasingly situated in virtual and immaterial spaces, and are increasingly employing digital techniques and methodologies, it is necessary to create a code of digital ethics to support researchers working in these areas. The guidelines of this code should be in keeping with WAC’s ongoing commitment to ethical best practices and the protection of indigenous rights, and should be written such that they address issues of technological use, data collection and security, subject safety, community participation, preservation of digital archives, accessibility, and futurism.
- Meghan Dennis, Hanna Marie Pageau
Reworded Resolution 6
Proposed at WAC-8 by Jan Turek, John Carman, Marcia Bezerra de Almeida, Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu, Andres Zarankin, Akira Matsuda and María Florencia Becerra
Reworded by Akira Matsuda and Andres Zarankin
Following the unfortunate 2016 July coup events academics in Turkey were banned from international travel. A number of Deans of faculties were removed from their positions and several universities were closed down. Dozens of academics were removed from their posts in Turkish universities. Some Turkish members of the World Archaeological Congress were not able to leave their country and join our international conference in Kyoto (WAC-8). Others only received permission to leave too late to make arrangements. We, the World Archaeological Congress, consider such political interference with academic freedom unacceptable. Turkish scholars should no longer be intimidated, persecuted and criminalized. We express our deep solidarity with academic colleagues in Turkey.
Reworded Resolution 7
Proposed at WAC-8 by Claire Smith, Keiichi Omoto and Junko Habu
Finalised by Aulii Mitchell
We propose that WAC consider developing an Accord or set of principles to educate and guide interactions between archaeologists and extractive industry, including mining, dams and energy developments that include the importance of contributing to the empowerment of indigenous peoples, descendant and local communities with respect for their rights and interests by furthering indigenous, descendent and local communities ability to protect and benefit from their cultural and intellectual properties and resources.
Proposed by Uzma Rizvi and Hirofumi Kato and approved by the WAC Council
We would request WAC to endorse a statement issued to the Government of India, to work collaboratively with indigenous archaeologists from Northeastern India to repatriate both human remains and cultural objects to the regional museums in Northeast India. These materials are currently housed in museums elsewhere (outside of India).
We would request WAC to endorse and strongly recommend an inclusive heritage education in social studies at Elementary and High School level curriculum on the History of Northeast India published by NCERT, New Delhi and other history publishing houses.
We would request WAC to urge the Bangladeshi government to constitutionally recognize the indigenous peoples identity, land rights, and language. There are currently 45 such indigenous communities, each with different cultures, customs and practice. They should be recognized as such.
We would request WAC to urge the Pakistani government to constitutionally recognize the Kalasha as indigenous people, with distinct identity, land rights, and language.
We would request WAC to endorse a statement issued to the Government of Japan, to work collaboratively with indigenous Ainu to repatriate both human remains and cultural objects to the Ainu community. These materials are currently housed in museums elsewhere (outside of Japan).
We would request WAC to assist international backing for the indigenous policies (distinct identity and language) in Japan, and to continue the ongoing monitoring.
We would request WAC to urge to Japanese government to involve the Ainu indigenous community in the research and conservation process of the “Po-kawa” site, Shibetsu town, Hokkaido.
Resolutions 9 and 10 were not adopted by the Final Plenary of WAC-8
Reworded Resolution 11
Proposed at WAC-8 by Koji Mizoguchi, Mónica Berón, Felipe Criado Boado
Finalised by Koji Mizoguchi
WAC 30th Anniversary Plenary at WAC-8 Kyoto 2016 Statement on the Future Collaboration of International Archaeological Communities (‘Kyoto Statement on the Future Collaboration of International Archaeological Communities’)
Archaeology has matured as a result of confronting a range of social issues, sometimes reactively without much reflection or intent, but other times consciously and proactively. Change in our field has been accelerated by a number of historic events, including the foundation of the World Archaeological Congress thirty years ago, created specifically as a commitment to uphold the UN’s total cultural and academic boycott of the racist Apartheid regime in South Africa, and explicitly in recognition of the historical and social role, and the political context, of archaeological enquiry, of archaeological organisations, and of archaeological interpretation. This commitment is as relevant today as it was in 1986.
We gather today to reflect upon what has happened to archaeology since then and to consider and discuss what we should build upon our achievements and how we can learn from our failures.
Those thirty years brought us some crucial realizations: what we are doing in the name of archaeology inevitably yields unintended consequences, and we archaeologists are accountable for them; but we have also realized that we can do a lot more than we ever imagined to make the world a better place. We have begun to understand the vital importance of using the past to support and maintain basic human rights, and to aid in the development of practices that respect many stakeholders and mitigate our impact on the environment. The practice of archaeology affects local, national, regional and global arenas.
Our world has many deepening problems: economic gaps at local, national and global levels, destruction of both intellectual and cultural heritages and traditions, and abuse of our natural environment. These tragedies ultimately lead to the destabilization and fragmentation of our identities and heightened fear and anxiety, and culminate in the proliferation of discrimination, fundamentalism, violence, conflicts and all sorts of human sufferings.
However, we also have acquired new resources to better organize ourselves to confront these issues. Wise use of digital communication tools and social media can allow us to rapidly share ideas, information and experience across cultural boundaries and physical space to find globally informed but still locally specific ways to tackle problems. Already these new platforms of communication have given us new intellectual tools and new coalitions such as WAC’s “Archaeologists without Borders” and “Global Libraries.”
Drawing upon our achievements and strengths, without forgetting the troubling heritage of our discipline, inspired by the presentations made by those who gather here on the 29th day of August 2016 to celebrate the 30th Anniversary of the World Archaeological congress, I propose that we, the archaeological communities of the world, strive to achieve the following:
- Work together to promote and protect vitally important traditions and heritages – tangible, intangible, intellectual, and material – for the well-being of diverse communities across the world.
- Work together to promote and enhance the value of the material traces of human existence as a vital resource for the peaceful co-existence of human groups and sustainable harmony between humanity and the environment.
- Work together to maximize the value of the material traces of the human past to provide examples, both good and bad to help us eliminate discrimination, violence and conflicts.
- Work together at local, national, regional and global scales to sustain the natural environment which made human existence possible in the past, and the present and upon which our future depends.
- Work together to reduce the economic gaps within and between our nations and within and between the regions of the world that are a significant cause of the aforementioned issues and problems, by utilizing all means available to the discipline of archaeology.
- Work together to overcome language barriers to enhance our ability to communicate, share ideas and discuss solutions for the problems we must try confront without socio-economic, political, historical, ethnic and gender biases.
- Work together to achieve ever closer collaboration for sharing information, thoughts and ideas in order to better organise ourselves to achieve these 21st Century objectives. They are lofty but we believe they are within our reach.
Koji Mizoguchi (President of the World Archaeological Congress)*
Koji Mizoguchi (President, World Archaeological Congress)
Mónica Berón (President, Society of Argentinian Anthropology)
Felipe Criado Boado (President, European Association of Archaeologists)
*Contents inspired by the panelists of WAC 30th Anniversary Plenary at WAC-8 Kyoto 2016: ‘WAC at 30: Give the Past a Future’ (29 August, 2016). The panelists are as follows:
- Mónica Berón (President, Society of Argentinian Anthropology)
- Jean Bourgeois (President, The International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences)
- Catherine Frieman (European Association of Archaeologists)
- Diane Gifford-Gonzalez (President, Society for American Archaeology)
- Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu (Representative, Pan-African Archaeological Association)
- Glenn Summerhayes (Representative, Indo-Pacific Prehistoric Association)
Reworded Resolution 12
Proposed at WAC-8 by Cressida Fforde and Amber Aranui
Finalised by Amber Aranui in consultation with the Indigenous Members on the WAC Council
In discussing these issues in Kyoto, recognized for its importance in the adoption of international protocols of great significance for the lands, waters, people and all living things, and:
Noting that repatriation is an essential component of healing and wellbeing for Indigenous peoples and holds great potential for social benefit and reconciliation;
Noting that repatriation is a process that will continue for many years to come and that it has significant logistical requirements and associated financial cost;
Noting that successful repatriation requires in-depth consultation, archival research and best practice information provision processes to ensure communities of origin can make ongoing and informed decisions;
Noting that holding institutions throughout the colonized world rest on local Indigenous kin-community/nationi landscapes of ancestral significance;
Noting that these local Indigenous kin-communities/nations had no involvement in the collection and storage of ancestors and associated belongings on their traditional lands, but nevertheless carry a governance responsibility to facilitate return;
Noting that many nations and institutions have agreed that the return of ancestors is a social justice issue; and
Noting that successful repatriation requires this to occur in a self-determining manner that is under Indigenous control:
- WAC-8 commits to support the initiatives of Indigenous peoples to secure the return of their Ancestors, funerary objects, sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony;
- WAC-8 reaffirms commitment to the WAC Code of Ethics, the Vermillion Accord and The Tamaki Makau–rau Accord on the Display of Human Remains and Sacred Objects;
- WAC-8 commends WAC for facilitating discussion and dialogue on repatriation issues for 30 years and encourages WAC to continue this important role at an international level;
- WAC-8 calls upon institutions to ensure access to relevant archives and other sources of information in a timely fashion;
- WAC-8 encourages holding institutions in the colonized world to enter into a formalized governance partnership with their local Indigenous kin-community/nation as part of facilitating the return of Ancestors, funerary objects, sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony to communities of origin;
- WAC-8 endorses the principle that the application of any new or emerging techniques that may be applied to repatriation must:
- respect the cultural values of the Indigenous kin-communities/nations involved,
- ensure that Indigenous IP and cultural knowledge is protected,
- follow the principle of best practice in ensuring Free, Prior and Informed Consent;
- WAC-8 encourages governments and holding institutions to inform communities of their holdings and to resource necessary provenancing work;
- WAC-8 encourages governments and holding institutions to provide support and commit the resources required to fully enable communities to undertake all aspects of repatriation processes up to and including the journey to their final resting place;
- WAC-8 calls on nations to recognize their responsibilities under Section 12 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples;ii
- WAC-8 calls upon those countries that have not endorsed UNDRIP to do so in a timely manner:
Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gambia, Georgia, Grenada, Guinea Bissau, Russian Federation, Israel, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Kenya, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Montenegro, Morocco, Nauru, Nigeria, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, SolomonIslands, Somalia, Tajikistan, Togo, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu.
i We recognize these terms are not universal and recognize the right of Indigenous peoples to determine the words they use to describe their collective identity.
ii Article 12 of the UNDRIP states that:
- Indigenous peoples have the right to manifest, practise, develop and teach their spiritual and religious traditions, customs and ceremonies; the right to maintain, protect, and have access in privacy to their religious and cultural sites; the right to the use and control of their ceremonial objects; and the right to the repatriation of their human remains.
- States shall seek to enable the access and/or repatriation of ceremonial objects and human remains in their possession through fair, transparent and effective mechanisms developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples concerned.
Resolution 13: Archaeology and Cultural Heritage in the Palestinian Occupied Territories
Proposed at WAC-8 by Koji Mizoguchi, Akram Ijla, Ghattas Sayej, Chemi Shiff and Brian Boyd
“It is unethical for Professional Archaeologists and academic institutions to conduct professional archaeological work and excavations in occupied areas possessed by force”.
Resolution 9, passed at the WAC-7, Jordan, 2013.
Since its inception and foundation thirty years ago, the World Archaeological Congress has been proactive in the protection of basic human rights and the promotion of social justice. Palestine-Israel issues, largely caused by the latter’s occupation of the domain of the Palestinian Authority, and recognized as illegal by the United Nations, have been an important agendum for the WAC, and some important resolutions concerning the issues have been discussed and passed by the plenary and adopted as WAC International Congress resolutions (see above citation).
The current political circumstances in the region do not show any sign of immediate amelioration, and the on-the-ground situations relating to the occupation are worsening. As archaeologists and cultural heritage professionals, we cannot overlook the ongoing and relentless erosion of cultural heritage that is happening on a daily basis in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. We need to take a position on the destruction of the material evidence of human history, and the places and the sources of the self-identification of those who live in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Deep cultural connections to this history form an essential element of human well-being, and hence, are a vital component of basic human rights.[Note: WAC affirms that nothing in the present proposal/resolution, which aims at the safeguarding of the archaeology and cultural heritage of Palestine and the distinctive character of East Jerusalem, shall in any way affect the relevant Security Council and United Nations resolutions and decisions on the legal status of Palestine and Jerusalem. *See below footnote for details.]
Points relating to ongoing Israeli archaeological activity in the Occupied Palestinian Territories
- WAC regrets the refusal of the Israeli (archaeological?academic?) authorities/institutions to implement UNESCO decisions concerning Jerusalem, and the decisions aiming at protecting cultural heritage in the Occupied Territories in the West Bank and Gaza;
- WAC condemns the ongoing archaeological excavations in East Jerusalem, particularly in and around the Old City, and reiterates its request to Israeli institutions and organisations to prohibit all such work in line with the UNESCO and UN human rights decisions.
- WAC calls on the relevant Israeli archaeological/academic? authorities/institutions? to allow the restoration of the historic status quo that prevailed until September 2000, under which the Jordanian Awqaf (Religious Foundation) Department exercised exclusive authority on Al-Aqsa Mosque/Al-Haram Al Sharif, and its mandate extended to all affairs relating to the unimpeded administration of Al-Aqsa Mosque/Al-Haram Al Sharif, including maintenance, restoration, and regulating access. At the same timeWAC encourages the Awqf to respect the parallel sanctity of the site for Muslims, Jews and Christians and to avoid the demolition of all archeological remains in the area under its jurisdiction.
- WAC regards as unfortunate the Israeli decision to approve a plan to build a two-line cable car system in East Jerusalem and the so called “Liba House” project in the Old City of Jerusalem, as well as the construction of the so called “Kedem Center”, a visitor center near the southern wall of the Mosque, the construction of the Strauss Building and the project of the elevator in the Western Wall/Al Buraq Plaza and urges Israel to renounce the above-mentioned projects and to stop the construction works in conformity with its obligations under the relevant UNESCO conventions, resolutions and decisions;
- WAC Further expresses its deep concern regarding the illegal demolitions of Ummayyad, Ottoman and Mamluk remains as well as other intrusive works and excavations in and around the Mughrabi Gate Pathway, and also requests Israel to halt such demolitions, excavations and works and to abide by its obligations under the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of 1954;
- WAC strongly opposes the illegal Israeli archaeological excavations, and the construction of private roads for settlers and the separation wall inside the Old City of Al-Khalīl/Hebron, Nablus, Salfit, and Bethlehem that harmfully affect the integrity of the sites, and the concomitant restrictions on freedom of movement, and freedom of access to heritage places of worship. WAC urges Israel to end these violations in compliance with provisions of relevant UNESCO conventions, resolutions and decisions;
- WAC deeply regrets Israel’s refusal to comply with UN and UNESCO, both of which requested the Israeli authorities to protect cultural heritage sites in the occupied Palestinian territories from violent attacks and aggression, and calls on the Israeli authorities to act in accordance with international and UN decisions.
Recommendations from the WAC-8:
- That Israel respects and follows international conventions by ceasing archaeological investigations in the West Bank, in violation of the fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 and the Hague Convention of 1954.
- That Israel enforce the law regarding the legalized trade in antiquities. This will hinder looting and contribute positively to the protection of what remains of archaeological sites.
- We encourage WAC to put pressure on international academic publishers to refuse to publish articles by Israeli and international scholars that relate to archaeological excavations in the Occupied Palestinian Territories.
- We wish to encourage Palestinian and Israeli archaeologists to meet together, discuss their research, and share their opinions, either by participating in international conferences, or by conducting joint projects. We therefore request that the WAC acts as a mediator in the organisation of an archaeological conference in the region, where both Israeli and Palestinian colleagues can participate and enter into constructive dialogue.
- Palestinian students and scholars require access to libraries and other academic resources in Jerusalem and other cities and towns in Israel and in the PT. Further, they must be permitted to participate in local, regional and international conferences and other academic meetings. Freedom of movement is a basic human right. We therefore urge Israel to facilitate free movement for the Palestinian academic community.
*Footnote: This proposed resolution is in line with, and allies itself to, the provisions of the four Geneva Conventions (1949) and their additional Protocols (1977); the 1907 Hague Regulations on Land Warfare; the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954) and its additional Protocols; the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970); the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972); the inscription of the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls at the request of Jordan on the World Heritage List (1981); the List of World Heritage in Danger (1982); the recommendations, resolutions and decisions of UNESCO on the protection of cultural heritage, as well as resolutions and decisions of UNESCO relating to Jerusalem; UNESCO decisions related to the protection of archaeological sites and cultural heritage places of Gaza as well as UNESCO decisions on the two Palestinian sites in Al-Khalil/Hebron, Bethlehem, Nablus, and in the West Bank.
Koji Mizoguchi (Kyushu University)
Akram Ijla (Uppsala University, Sweden)
Ghattas Sayej (Fylkeskonservatoren i Vest-Agder, Norway)
Brian Boyd (Columbia University, USA)
One of the original signatories, Mr. Chemi Shiff, has temporarily withdrawn his name as a signatory because of the decision taken by Koji Mizoguchi, the President, of removing the term ‘Temple Mount’ from Item 3 of the resolution.
The term ‘Temple Mount’ was not in the original resolution submitted to and adopted by the WAC-8 final plenary. The term was added in the process of finalizing the resolution with other amendments made to the original resolution.
However, Mizoguchi took notice that the latest UNESCO resolution did not use the term ‘Temple Mount’ (see http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002462/246215e.pdf), and on the ground that the WAC statutes Article 2.3 and 3.2 (http://worldarch.org/statutes/) oblige us to respect the UNESCO principles and language use, and on the ground that the continued use of the term might constitute the violation of the statutes, decided to remove the term from the resolution.
Mr. Shiff, also a Council and Executive member, objected to this action on the ground that all the positions concerning the dispute concerning the particular locale need to be respected and included. Other council members also expressed their objection to the action, as the others approved the action.
Mizoguchi has asked the original signatories their respective opinions on this matter and has asked to propose a possible action to move forward. The council shall discuss and decide how to solve this issue when such proposal is submitted. Currently, the respective views of the signatories have been expressed, and the Council members and the signatories are discussing to reach a consensus. Until such time, the name of Mr. Chemi Shiff, will remain withdrawn as a signatory.
(by Koji Mizoguchi, the president of the World Archaeological Congress, 10 January, 2017)
Reworded Resolution 14
Proposed at WAC-8 by Anne Pyburn seconded by Alexander Herrera
Finalised by Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu
Resolution to recommend to the Editors of Archaeologies, One World and any other publications that appear with the imprimatur of the Congress that they possibly develop a formal publications policy for the Congress, informed by Israel and Palestine situation and aimed at ensuring that WAC values are realised in all the documents published by the organisation. The policy should possibly include several stipulations, some of which are provided below. Importantly, not all of these apply exclusively or directly to Israel’s military stance towards Palestine Congress:
+Accept the use of gendered, derogatory or damaging terminology or literary constructions;
+Accept for publication any manuscript that describes, analyses or relies on unprovenienced artifacts or data from looted contexts;
+Accept for publication research that promotes the sale of artifacts or the destruction of cultural property;
+Accept for publication research conducted without appropriate consent from Indigenous or descendant communities or research to which legitimate stakeholders object or research that seriously and undoubtedly undermines human rights;
+Accept for publication research with the foreseeable consequence (intended or unintended) of encouraging human rights violations such as undermining indigenous rights to land or property or personal freedom, e.g. archaeological research undertaken in Southern Belize under permit issued by the national government and used in international court to undermine Maya land rights, or research undertaken in direct contravention of the wishes of indigenous or descendant groups;
+Research conducted or solely approved by a dominant nation under conditions of war, occupation by an invading force, or illegal settlement. There could be exceptions, however. For instance, research undertaken in conflict zones could be accepted, e.g. research in the occupied territory of Palestine could be accepted for review if authored or co-authored by Palestinian scholars.